-- Canine Castration
is performed using a closed technique. In the closed technique,
the testicular tunics are not incised. The testes are
pushed forward from the scrotum and held in place with
the thumb and index finger (Figure 1).
skin incision 2 - 3 cm in length is made through the median
raphe just cranial to the scrotum (Figure 2).
testis is forced into the incision site and held with
thumb and index finger. The subcutaneous tissue over the
tunics is incised sharply with a scalpel blade (Figure
spermatic fascia and scrotal ligaments are severed or
broken with traction, and the tunics are stripped free
of fat with a sponge (Figure 4).
a large dog, the spermatic ligament can be clamped and
ligated before transaction to prevent bleeding from the
small vessel within the spermatic ligament.
tunic-enclosed spermatic cord is isolated (Figure 5).
Carmalt clamps is placed around the spermatic cord and the
cord is ligated with appropriate catgut proximally (Figure
cord is amputated with testicle distally (Figure 7).
pedicle is grasped with thumb forceps and the clamp is removed.
As tension is relaxed on the pedicle, the pedicle is carefully
checked for hemorrhage.
procedure is repeated on the opposite testicle through the
same incision. The skin is closed with a sub-cuticular suture
pattern using PDS #2-0, or the skin can be closed only with
#4-0 stainless steel simple interrupted sutures.
advantages of the closed technique are decreased seroma
formation at the incision site and less scrotal swelling.
major complication is postoperative hemorrhage from the
pedicle because of improper placement or loosening of the
ligature around the tunics and spermatic cord.
the surgeon is concerned about this possibility, the tunics
can be carefully incised directly over the area to be ligated.
the testicular vessels and vas deferens can be individually
ligated and transacted in the same position.