Surgery -- Canine Castration

Castration is performed using a closed technique. In the closed technique, the testicular tunics are not incised. The testes are pushed forward from the scrotum and held in place with the thumb and index finger (Figure 1).

A skin incision 2 - 3 cm in length is made through the median raphe just cranial to the scrotum (Figure 2).

The testis is forced into the incision site and held with thumb and index finger. The subcutaneous tissue over the tunics is incised sharply with a scalpel blade (Figure 3).

The spermatic fascia and scrotal ligaments are severed or broken with traction, and the tunics are stripped free of fat with a sponge (Figure 4).

In a large dog, the spermatic ligament can be clamped and ligated before transaction to prevent bleeding from the small vessel within the spermatic ligament.

The tunic-enclosed spermatic cord is isolated (Figure 5).

A Carmalt clamps is placed around the spermatic cord and the cord is ligated with appropriate catgut proximally (Figure 6).

The cord is amputated with testicle distally (Figure 7).

The pedicle is grasped with thumb forceps and the clamp is removed. As tension is relaxed on the pedicle, the pedicle is carefully checked for hemorrhage.

The procedure is repeated on the opposite testicle through the same incision. The skin is closed with a sub-cuticular suture pattern using PDS #2-0, or the skin can be closed only with #4-0 stainless steel simple interrupted sutures.

The advantages of the closed technique are decreased seroma formation at the incision site and less scrotal swelling.

The major complication is postoperative hemorrhage from the pedicle because of improper placement or loosening of the ligature around the tunics and spermatic cord.

If the surgeon is concerned about this possibility, the tunics can be carefully incised directly over the area to be ligated.

Then the testicular vessels and vas deferens can be individually ligated and transacted in the same position.




Figure 1 -- Pushing testes forward

Figure 2 -- Skin incision over teste cranial to scrotum

Figure 3 -- Exposed teste

Figure 4 -- Tunics stripped with sponge

Figure 5 -- Isolated spermatic cord

Figure 6 -- Ligated cord

Figure 7 -- The cord is severed and the testicle is amputated

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